Friday, 29 November 2013

Project proposal Abstract

Interrelationship between water hyacinth and the new water weed in Lake Victoria- Homabay County
*Ouma Emmanuel Nicholas1 (Reg. #A22/1798/2010)
Supervisor(s): Prof S. Keya1, Dr A.K. Mwala 1

1University of Nairobi, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), P.O. Box 29053 – 00625, Nairobi, Kenya.

* Corresponding author:

Lake Victoria in 1990s was invaded by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and recently in 2013 with a new water weed resembling Napier. This is attributed to environmental degradation in the watershed, ideal environmental conditions and lack of biological control agents. It is the aim of this study to determine if there is a difference in development and accumulation level of nutrients and heavy metal between water hyacinth and the new water weed and control measures and possible uses of the new water weed. Plant materials and water will be sampled depending on the density and distance from the shore. The new water weed will be taken for classification and the samples will be analyzed for pH, N, P and K. and heavy metal As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and S. A community survey will be conducted involving interviewing occupants. Data will be monitored for a month.
Key words: new water weed, water hyacinth, heavy metals, classification, nutrients, use, control measure, nutrients

Thursday, 17 October 2013


The government of any country is without doubt the single largest institution that can affect the quality of life of its citizens. Efficient delivery of public services in Africa and other developing regions has for a long time been hindered by highly centralized government bureaucracies. One of the key reforms is the establishment of devolution through the country’s government.
The government has over the years initiated several reforms aimed at strengthening local government institutional capacity to effectively manage their revenues and expenditures, improve service delivery, enhance economic governance and promote citizen participation in poverty-reducing projects. One such initiative is the establishment of a fund to rationalize the central-local financial relations by providing resources and incentives to local authorities to improve service delivery, financial management and debt reduction.
The primary motivation for the introduction of the new approaches has been the realization that past initiatives to decentralize resources to local authorities had not yielded concrete results, especially in lifting the population out of poverty, primarily because the authorities were riddled with corruption and management inefficiencies, a situation that still persists. In particular, local authorities continue to have inadequate and ineffective oversight from the central government as well as from the beneficiaries of the services they provide. The central government has recently been experimenting with the decentralization of the management of various service delivery systems so as to involve local communities in the management of these systems. These new management initiatives should make local authorities more accountable and efficient
Devolution or decentralization is the transfer of powers from the central government to local units consisting of the president, ministers, senator, governor, and members of parliament. Devolution can take various forms;
a) Administrative - For example the establishment of Government Offices for the Regions, or,  the practice of transferring responsibilities from central government departments to territorial departments of the same Government.
b) Executive - where the prerogative powers of the Government are transferred to ministers of devolved governments, usually under statutory authority.
c) Legislative - where law-making powers are transferred to other legislatures.
Devolution to county governments is per­ceived as an important measure to ensure the fair distribution of resources throughout the country and reduce the role of ethno-regional factionalism in national politics. According to devolution and decentralization, state power is executed at both the national and county level with the objects of “fostering national unity by recognizing diversity” and ensuring equitable sharing of resources.
One of the objects and principles of a devolved and decentralized government is to recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and further their development. This gives the people a sense of identity and self-empowerment. This is because they feel recognized in their contribution to the growth of their own county. Another principle is to protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalized communities. Hence the minorities will not feel sidelined. This promotes a sense of unity as they do not feel as though their needs have been ignored.